German painter and designer born in Munich. In 1910-14 studied history of art in Munich and Paris and took private drawing lessons with Harmann Gröber. Around 1912/13 travelled to Italy. His frst solo-exhibition at the Dietwel Gallery in Munich. 1916 Doctorate under Botho Gräd in Jena and from 1916-1928 he was director of the Jena Arts Association. In 1917 he did his first abstract paintings, influenced by Constructivism. 1918 Exhibition at Herwarth Walden's gallery Der Sturm in Berlin. In 1919 he met Schwitters and had close contact with the Bauhaus Masters in Weimar whose works he exhibited in Jena. In 1921-22 Developed a concrete-abstract style of painting. From 1923 member of the Novembergruppe, and from 1928 joined Schwitters in the Ring Neuer Werbegestalter (Association of New Advertisers). 1928-35 Lectureship at the Magdeburg School of Applied Arts and Crafts. In 1933 he was denounced by the Nazis, and stopped painting. In 1942-55 he set up the Collection of Historic Forms in Brunswick and published numerous books on design. In 1961 he took up painting again.