Together with Yves Klein, Arman, Hains, Martial Raysse, Spoerri, Tinguely and Villeglé, founded on 26th October 1960 the Nouveaux Réalistes Group. All of these, with the exception of Klein, were included in the 1961 The art of Assemblage at The Museum of Modern Art, and in the New Realists show, the following year, at Sidney Janis. Pierre Restany, the theoretician of this group wrote: "In Europe, as well as in the United States, we are finding new directions in nature, for contemporary nature is mechanical, industrial and flooded with advertisements... The reality of everyday life has now become the factory and the city." In 1949 Dufrêne, Jacques de La Villeglé, Mimmo Rotella, and Raymond Hains, began to collect, and perform the décollage technique on commercial and political posters to exhibit them as aesthetic objects and sociological documents. They applied the technique consistently to printed posters; they are sometimes referred to as affichistes and their pictures as affiches lacérées.