The American sculptor Richard Serra studied, between 1957 and 1961, at the University of California in Berkeley and Santa Barbara and, between 1961 and 1964, at Yale University in New Haven. His works at the end of the 60s put forward the idea that the essence of the work was based on the act and on the specific qualities of the materials and spaces in which they are placed. Between 1972 and 1987, he took part in documenta 5 and 8 in Kassel; in 1980 at the Venice Biennale and, in 1982 and 1987, in documenta 7 and 8. As from the beginning of the 80s and, mainly, in public sculptures such as Titled Arc, Serra has worked on an ever-increasing scale. Instead of making landscapes monuments, as other Land Artists have done, he prefers to accentuate the view of the observer in the urban spaces in which his works are placed. His monumental sculptures were the theme of an exhibition in 1998, at the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbau.