Swiss sculptor, painter, architect, industrial designer and art theorist. Bill studied at the Bauhaus Dessau between 1927 and 1929 when Josef Albers was still teaching there. He began referring to his work as "concrete" in 1936. He was associated with Abstraction-Création in Paris and organized exhibitions of Concrete Art in Switzerland, such as Konkrete Kunst at Basel in 1944. From 1951 to 1956 he was rector of the Hochschule für Gestaltung, a building which he also designed in Ulm. Bill argued that painting and sculpture, consciously or unconsciously, have always had mathematical bases. In the forms of Concrete Art he found rationalism, clarity and harmony. His simple forms and geometric figures bore no relationship to the "natural" world. He was always seeking simplicity and purity, and liked to arrive at a solution which had apparently no alternative. He has said that his subject-matter in painting is colour, and that the generation of fields of energy with the aid of colour was one of the new possibilities.