American sculptor and draughtsman, pioneer of mobiles. Born in Philadelphia, the son and grandson of sculptors. Studied engineering and worked at various jobs before attending the Art Students League, New York, to study painting 1923-26. First one-man exhibition at the Weyhe Gallery, New York, 1928. Lived 1928-33 mainly in Paris, where he became friendly with Miró, and joined the group Abstraction-Création in 1931. Started to make sculptures, to which Duchamp gave the name mobiles, which could be moved by hand or by small electric motors, followed from 1934, by pieces which were set in motion by air currents (Mayor Gallery, London). The name stabiles was later suggested by Arp for his sculptures which did not move. Lived mainly in the USA, at Roxbury, Connecticut, from 1933 until 1953. Awarded the main prize for sculpture at the 1952 Venice Biennale and the First Prize for Sculpture at the 1958 Pittsburgh International. He was awarded the United National Peace Medal, Retrospective exhibitions of Calder 's work have been held at the the Whitney Museum in 1976, at the Centre Pompidou in 1978, at the Palazzo a Vela, Turin, 1987, Whitney Museum, New York, 1992, Royal Academy of Arts, London. Died in New York.